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How to Teach Object Case Pronouns

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
Subject Case Pronouns

How to Teach Object Case Pronouns                                                         Common Core

Pronouns come in different cases: subject, object, and possessive. Case refers to the function of the word in the sentence. In other words, case indicates the job the pronoun does.

Today we are studying object case pronouns. Remember that a pronoun takes the place of a noun. Using object case pronouns avoids using repetitious nouns.

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

These are the object case pronouns:

Singular—me, you, him, her, it, whom Plural—us, you, them, whom

Always place the me and us pronouns last in compound objects.
Example: Please text Robin and us.

To check whether whom is correct, try substituting him in place of whom and rephrase, if necessary. Example: Whom did Joan love? Rephrase: Did Joan love him?

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: Who did you expect to see at the concert? I know you looked for me and Amalia.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: Whom did you expect to see at the concert? I know you looked for Amalia and me.

Now apply the grammar and usage lesson to write this Sentence Dictation, revising this sentence with appropriate object case pronouns: Who did I like? I liked both Sergio and him. [Repeat as many times as is necessary]

Let’s check the Sentence Dictation.

Sentence Dictation: Whom did I like? I liked both Sergio and him.

Writing Application: Now let’s apply what we’ve learned and compose a sentence or two, using an object case pronoun as part of a compound object the whom object case pronoun.

These are the object case pronouns:

Singular—me, you, him, her, it, whom Plural—us, you, them, whom

Always place the me and us pronouns last in compound objects.
Example: Please text Robin and us.

To check whether whom is correct, try substituting him in place of whom and rephrase, if necessary. Example: Whom did Joan love? Rephrase: Did Joan love him?

This grammar and usage writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

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How to Teach Subject Case Pronouns

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
Subject Case Pronouns                                                                                                 Common Core

How to Teach Subject Case Pronouns

*****

Pronouns come in many different forms: subject, object, possessive, relative, interrogative, demonstrative, indefinite, personal, reflexive, and reciprocal. In other words, English loves to substitute nouns for pronouns.

Today we are studying subject case pronouns. Remember that a pronoun takes the place of a noun. Using subject case pronouns avoids repetitious nouns, especially in dialogue.

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

These are the subject case pronouns:

Singular—I, you, he, she, it, who Plural—we, you, they, who
Example: They brought a basket of flowers.

Also use subject case pronouns following “to be” verbs (is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been) to identify or refer to the subject as predicate nominatives. Example: It is I.

Place the first person singular pronoun (I) last in compound subjects. Example: Paul and I left.

If unsure whether a pronoun should be in the subject case, rephrase the sentence with the pronoun at the start of the sentence. Example: The winner was me. Rephrase: I was the winner.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: Pedro and I just want to know if the burglar really was him or his friend.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: Pedro and I just want to know if the burglar really was he or his friend.

Now apply the grammar and usage lesson to write this Sentence Dictation, revising this sentence with appropriate subject case pronouns: His wife enjoys sports more than him. When she picks up the phone and hears “Is this Meg, the sports fanatic?” She answers, “It is me.” [Repeat as many times as is necessary]

Let’s check the Sentence Dictation.

Sentence Dictation: His wife enjoys sports more than he. When she picks up the phone and hears “Is this Meg, the sports fanatic?” She answers, “It is I.”

Writing Application: Now let’s apply what we’ve learned and compose a sentence or two, using a subject case pronoun following a “to be” verb and as part of a compound subject.

These are the subject case pronouns:

Singular—I, you, he, she, it, who Plural—we, you, they, who
Example: They brought a basket of flowers.

Also use subject case pronouns following “to be” verbs (is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been) to identify or refer to the subject as predicate nominatives. Example: It is I.

Place the first person singular pronoun (I) last in compound subjects. Example: Paul and I left.

If unsure whether a pronoun should be in the subject case, rephrase the sentence with the pronoun at the start of the sentence. Example: The winner was me. Rephrase: I was the winner.

This grammar and usage writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

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How to Teach the English Verb Tenses

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
English Verb Tenses

How to Teach the English Verb Tenses                                                   Common Core

*****

English has just three simple verb tenses to indicate time. Each verb tense builds onto the base form of the verb. The base form is incomplete or complete root which carries the meaning of the word. A complete root is called a base word.

Usually avoid mixing verb tenses within the same paragraph unless the writing content calls for doing so.

Today we are studying verb tenses. Remember that verbs can mentally act, as in think; physically act, as in run; or link to something else as a state of being, as in the “to be” verbs.

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

English uses three simple verb tenses to show time: the present, past, and future.

  • Regular past tense verbs add “_ed” onto the base form of the verb to match both singular and plural nouns or pronouns. Examples: jump-Mike jumped; They jumped,
  • Present tense verbs add an s onto the base form of the verb to match singular nouns or pronouns, but do not add an s to match plural nouns. Examples: Al jumps; We jump.
  • Future tense verbs add will onto the base form of the verb to match both singular and plural nouns or pronouns. Examples: Tom will jump. Tom and she will jump.

Now write down these three sentences and identify each verb tense in the parentheses which follow as past tense, present tense, or future tense.

I picked (_________________) up my daughter after school, and I

will drop (_________________) her off after we shop (_________________).

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers:

I picked (past) up my daughter after school, and I will drop (future) her off after we shop (present).

Now apply the grammar and usage lesson to write this Sentence Dictation, underlining each of the verbs and identifying each verb tense in the parentheses which follow: Mitch climbed the peak and will finish his hike after he takes a rest. [Repeat as many times as is necessary]

Let’s check the Sentence Dictation.

Sentence Dictation: Mitch climbed (past) the peak and will finish (future) his hike after he takes (present) a rest.

Writing Application: Now let’s apply what we’ve learned and compose a sentence or two, using a past, present, and future verb tense.

English uses three simple verb tenses to show time: the present, past, and future.

  • Regular past tense verbs add “_ed” onto the base form of the verb to match both singular and plural nouns or pronouns. Examples: jump-Mike jumped; They jumped,
  • Present tense verbs add an s onto the base form of the verb to match singular nouns or pronouns, but do not add an s to match plural nouns. Examples: Al jumps; We jump.
  • Future tense verbs add will onto the base form of the verb to match both singular and plural nouns or pronouns. Examples: Tom will jump. Tom and she will jump.

This grammar and usage writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

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How to Teach Types of Verbs

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
Types of Verbs

How to Teach Types of Verbs                                                                          Common Core

*****

One of the strengths of the English language is its variety of verb forms. English can say in one properly chosen verb form what it takes an entire sentence to say in other languages. Of course, English does have some irregular verbs, mostly in the past tense and past participle form, but other languages have their irregularities as well.

Today we are studying types of verbs. English has three basic types of verbs and three basic tenses. This lessons focuses on the types of verbs.

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

English has three types of verbs:

  • A verb can mentally act. Examples: think, like, wonder
  • A verb can physically act. Examples: run, talk, eat
  • A verb can also link a noun or pronoun to something else as a state of being. Examples: is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been

Now write down these three verbs and identify each type of verb in the parentheses which follow as mental action, physical action, or state of being.

Practice: talk (_________________) am (_________________) hate

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers:

talk (physical action) am (state of being) hate (mental action)

Now apply the grammar and usage lesson to write this Sentence Dictation, underlining each of the verbs: Being no older than ten, the youth knew his limitations, but tried harder than his companions. [Repeat as many times as is necessary]

Let’s check the Sentence Dictation.

Sentence Dictation: Being no older than ten, the youth knew his limitations, but tried harder than his companions.

Writing Application: Now let’s apply what we’ve learned and compose a sentence or two, using a physical action, state of being, and mental action.

English has three types of verbs:

  • A verb can mentally act. Examples: think, like, wonder
  • A verb can physically act. Examples: run, talk, eat
  • A verb can also link a noun or pronoun to something else as a state of being. Examples: is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been

This grammar and usage writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

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How to Teach Common Nouns

Teaching the Language Strand ©2013 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1                                                                     Common Core
Common Nouns

How to Teach Common Nouns

*****

Many times writers wish to generalize a person, place, thing, or idea. Common nouns are useful for generalizations. Common nouns also express ideas, which proper nouns cannot do.

Today we are studying common nouns. Remember that there are two kinds of nouns: proper nouns and common nouns.

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

A common noun is an idea, person, place, or thing. It can act or be acted upon and is capitalized only at the start of a sentence. A common noun can be a single word, a group of words, or a hyphenated word. Use common nouns to generalize ideas, persons, places, or things. Examples: liberty (idea), human (person), capital (place), eye-opener (thing)

Now write down these practice sentences and circle or highlight each common noun. Then list each type of common noun in the parentheses.

Practice: We Americans sometimes forget that peace (_______) has been achieved by brave men and women (_______) who left their country (_______) to fight in distant lands (_______).

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: We Americans sometimes forget that peace (idea) has been achieved by brave men and women (person) who left their country (thing) to fight in distant lands (place).

Now apply the grammar and usage lesson to write this Sentence Dictation, underlining the common nouns: Some people say that freedom is a dinosaur in this country. [Repeat as many times as is necessary]

Let’s check the Sentence Dictation.

Sentence Dictation: Some people say that freedom is a dinosaur in this country.

Writing Application: Now let’s apply what we’ve learned and compose a sentence or two, using a common noun person, place, thing, and idea.

A common noun is an idea, person, place, or thing. It can act or be acted upon and is capitalized only at the start of a sentence. A common noun can be a single word, a group of words, or a hyphenated word. Use common nouns to generalize ideas, persons, places, or things. Examples: liberty (idea), human (person), capital (place), eye-opener (thing)

This grammar and usage writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

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How to Teach Proper Nouns

Teaching the Language Strand ©2013 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
Proper Nouns

How to Teach Proper NounsCommon Core

*****

Learning to write with specificity is an important skill. Often developing writers settle for general common nouns when precise proper nouns would serve better.

Today we are studying proper nouns. Remember that there are two kinds of nouns: proper nouns and common nouns.

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

A proper noun is the name of a person, place, or thing and must be capitalized. A proper noun may be a single word, a group of words (with or without abbreviations), or a hyphenated word. Examples: John, President of the U.S., African-American

Sometimes the same word can name or not name a person, place, or thing. Capitalize the word only if it names or is part of a name. Example: They attended church at the First Baptist Church.

Now write down these practice sentences and circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to the mechanics lesson.

Practice: At the ceremony held in the State Rotunda, principal Taylor accepted the Blue Ribbon award on behalf of his students, parents, and teachers at Pinewood Middle School.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: At the ceremony held in the State Rotunda, Principal Taylor accepted the Blue Ribbon Award on behalf of his students, parents, and teachers at Pinewood Middle School.

Now apply the grammar and usage lesson to write this Sentence Dictation, revising this sentence with more specific proper nouns: People who live north of the U.S. border love to watch our final game of the pro football season. [Repeat as many times as is necessary]

Let’s check the Sentence Dictation.

Sentence Dictation: Canadians love to watch our Super Bowl.

Writing Application: Now let’s apply what we’ve learned and compose a sentence or two, using a proper noun person, place, and thing. 

A proper noun is the name of a person, place, or thing and must be capitalized. A proper noun may be a single word, a group of words (with or without abbreviations), or a hyphenated word. Examples: John, President of the U.S., African-American

Sometimes the same word can name or not name a person, place, or thing. Capitalize the word only if it names or is part of a name. Example: They attended church at the First Baptist Church.

This grammar and usage writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programsTeaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

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How to Teach Latin Abbreviations

Teaching the Language Strand ©2013 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
Using periods in commonly-used Latin abbreviationsCommon Core

How to Teach Latin Abbreviation

*****

As a middle school English teacher, I’m constantly amazed by the variety of language influences upon our English language. In fact, much of our academic language is built upon a language no one even speaks anymore: Latin.

Today we are studying how to use periods in commonly-used Latin expressions. Remember that periods are used to abbreviate words and phrases.

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Latin abbreviations are set off from the rest of the sentence by commas or parentheses.

  • etc. (et cetera), which means and so on. Example: He likes them all: cake, cookies, etc.
  • et al. (et alii), which means and others. Example: The six researchers (Jones, et al.)
  • e.g. (exempli gratia), which means for example. Example: I love ice cream, e.g., vanilla (e.g., vanilla)
  • i.e. (id est), which means that is. When using the i.e., think in other words to explain or define, not to signal examples. Example: He is goofy, i.e., silly (i.e., silly).

Now write down these practice sentences and circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to the mechanics lesson.

Practice: I eat lots of green vegetables, i.e., kale, beans, and peas. I also exercise, drink plenty of water, etc.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Practice Answers: I eat lots of green vegetables, e.g., kale, beans, and peas. I also exercise, drink plenty of water, etc.

Now apply the mechanics lesson to write this Sentence Dictation with proper Latin abbreviations: Our Congress, that is the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes laws, declares war, et cetera. [Repeat as many times as is necessary.]

Let’s check the Sentence Dictation.

Sentence Dictation: Our Congress, i.e., the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes laws, declares war, etc. (i.e., the Senate and the House of Representatives) makes laws, declares war, etc.

Writing Application: Now let’s apply what we’ve learned and write a sentence or two, using each of the four Latin abbreviations.

Latin abbreviations are set off from the rest of the sentence by commas or parentheses.

  • etc. (et cetera), which means and so on. Example: He likes them all: cake, cookies, etc.
  • et al. (et alii), which means and others. Example: The six researchers (Jones, et al.)
  • e.g. (exempli gratia), which means for example. Example: I love ice cream, e.g., vanilla (e.g., vanilla)
  • i.e. (id est), which means that is. When using the i.e., think in other words to explain or define, not to signal examples. Example: He is goofy, i.e., silly (i.e., silly).

This mechanics writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

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