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How to Teach Abbreviations and Acronyms

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Abbreviations and Acronyms: Mechanics Lesson 2

How to Teach Abbreviations and Acronyms                                                      Common Core

Like many languages, English has many forms of written communication. English uses abbreviations and acronyms to shorten words. Actually, even with today’s instant messaging and texting, English and American writers used to use far more shortened forms of writing than today.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on when and when not to use periods in abbreviations and acronyms. Remember to use periods after abbreviated words and after beginning and ending titles of proper nouns, such as “Mr.” and “Sr.” Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Use periods following the first letter of each key word in an abbreviated title or expression, and pronounce each of these letters when saying the abbreviation. Examples: U.S.A., a.m., p.m.

But, don’t use periods or pronounce the letters in an acronym. Acronyms are special abbreviated titles or expressions that are pronounced as words. Most all acronyms are capitalized. Example: NATO

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: David has worked outside of the U.S. in many foreign countries, but he now works for N.A.S.A.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: David has worked outside of the U.S. in many foreign countries, but he now works for NASA.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using both Latin abbreviations for time.

Check out the Pennington Publishing Blog for a full-year of grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons and our YouTube Pennington Publishing Channel for video versions of the same lessons.

This mechanics writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , , , , ,

How to Teach Non-standard English Commonly Misused Words 2

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Non-standard English Commonly Misused Words: Grammar and Usage Lesson 56

How to Teach Non-standard English Commonly Misused Words 2                                                       Common Core

We speak differently in different social situations. Hopefully, you talk to your mom and teacher differently than the way you talk to your friends. Most of us text differently than the way we write an essay. After all, beginning an essay with “BTW some so reb ldrs thot they really would win the civil war LOL” will probably not impress your history teacher. Students definitely need to learn the fine art of “code switching.” To code switch means to consider your audience and adjust what you say or write and how you do so. Using non-standard English in the wrong setting, such as in the classroom, is important to recognize and avoid.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on Non-standard English Commonly Misused Words. Remember that Non-standard English often differs from Standard English because of regional or cultural dialects. Often we are used to hearing and saying words or expressions that are not Standard English. Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

Following are commonly misused words:

  • Additions: We should say anyway, not anyways. We should say toward, not towards.
  • Deletions: We should say used to, not use to. We should say nothing, not nothin’. something, not somethin’, and anything, not anythin’. Example: I used to play guitar.
  • Misused Phrases: We should say I couldn’t care less, not I could care less. We should say once in a while, not once and a while. We should say any more, not no more. We should say could have, not could of. And no would of, should of, might of.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice:  I could care less if you put somethin’ towards the balance of the loan. That amount doesn’t matter much anyways.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers:  I couldn’t care less if you put something toward the balance of the loan. That amount doesn’t matter much anyway.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a commonly misused phrase.

Check out the Pennington Publishing Blog for a full-year of grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons and our YouTube Pennington Publishing Channel for video versions of the same lessons.

This grammar and usage writing opener is just part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Numbers within Text

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Numbers within Text: Mechanics Lesson 56

How to Teach Numbers within Text                                                     Common Core

How to properly write numbers outside of your math class can be quite confusing. Maybe it’s because we don’t even use our own numbers. We borrow Roman numerals for formal outlines and the dates at the end of our favorite movies. We use Arabic numerals for just about everything else. Arabic numerals are the symbols for our number system and most all the world uses them.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to write numbers within text. Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Spell out numbers from one to nine, but use Arabic numerals for #s10 and larger. However, spell out the number if used at the beginning of a sentence. Examples: five, 24, Six is a lot of donuts.

If a sentence has one number from one to nine and others larger, use Arabic numerals for all. Examples: Both numbers 2 and 12 were selected.

If numbers are next to each other, use the Arabic numeral for one and spell out the other. Examples: We ate 3 six-inch sandwiches.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson. 

Practice: “Twelve is a dozen. However, we say that 13 is a baker’s dozen and two is a pair.”

Let’s check the Practice Answers. 

Mechanics Practice Answers: “Twelve is a dozen. However, we say that 13 is a baker’s dozen and 2 is a pair.”

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using 1 number from 1-9 and 1 number above 10.

Check out the Pennington Publishing Blog for a full-year of grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons and our YouTube Pennington Publishing Channel for video versions of the same lessons.

This mechanics writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Non-standard English Commonly Misused Words 1

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Non-standard English Commonly Misused Words: Grammar and Usage Lesson 55

How to Teach Non-standard English Commonly Misused Words 1                                                        Common Core

Sometimes we hear an incorrect word or phrase so often that it sounds correct. Learning to pay attention to those commonly misused words and phrases will help you use them correctly in your speaking and writing.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on Non-standard English Commonly Misused Words. Remember that Non-standard English often differs from Standard English because of regional or cultural dialects. Often we are used to hearing and saying words that are not Standard English. Let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

Following are commonly misused words:

  • Farther refers to a physical distance. Example: How much farther is the next restaurant? Further refers to a degree or more time. Example: Further your knowledge by reading.
  • Beside means “next to.” Examples: She sits beside me. Besides means “except” or “furthermore.” Example: No one is having fun besides him. I am tired, besides I am sick.
  • Less deals with an amount, but can’t be counted. Example: I want less food. Fewer deals with an amount you can count. Example: I want fewer apples, not more.
  • Disinterested describes a person who is neutral, fair, and impartial. Example: The disinterested referee made the call. Uninterested describes a person who is not interested. Example: The uninterested girl paid no attention to the flirtatious boy.
  • Allowed means permitted. Example: Parking is allowed on this street. Aloud means heard by others. Example: He spoke aloud to the class.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: I’m really disinterested about the season. I am watching less games than ever. Plus, the stadium is further than I want to go and tailgating isn’t aloud. And I have to sit beside a stranger.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: I’m really disinterested about the season. I am watching fewer games than ever. Plus, the stadium is farther than I want to go and tailgating isn’t allowed. And I have to sit beside a stranger.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application:  Write your own sentence using a non-standard English Commonly Misused Words. Then write a second sentence correcting that non-standard English.

Check out the Pennington Publishing Blog for a full-year of grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons and our YouTube Pennington Publishing Channel for video versions of the same lessons.

This grammar and usage writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Slashes

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Slashes: Mechanics Lesson 55

How to Teach Slashes                                                       Common Core

English has a variety of punctuation marks which may be used for the same function. For example, brackets and parentheses can be used interchangeably. We can use parentheses, dashes, or commas to set off appositives to identify, define, or explain a preceding noun or pronoun. However, slashes have their own special function, though they are often misused and abused. With informal writing, such as texts and notes, misusing punctuation is no real problem, but in formal writing, such as essays, research papers, and business letters, proper punctuation is important.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to use slashes. Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

In informal writing, use a slash to separate dates, abbreviate, or to mean or. Examples: The dinner is scheduled on 3/11/2013 as a b/w (black or white tie) event for him/her.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: You could give the present to either him-her and (or) the letter any day after 11/24.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: You could give the present to either him/her and/or the letter any day after 11/24.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using slashes.

Check out the Pennington Publishing Blog for a full-year of grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons and our YouTube Pennington Publishing Channel for video versions of the same lessons.

This mechanics writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Non-standard English Substitutions

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Non-standard English Substitutions: Grammar and Usage Lesson 54

How to Teach Non-standard English Substitutions                                                        Common Core

The study of languages is fascinating. In particular, learning about dialects helps us appreciate our differences. Dialect is a form of a language that is spoken by a specific group of people in a certain area and uses some of its own words, grammar, and pronunciations. 

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on Non-standard English Substitutions. Remember that Non-standard English often differs from Standard English because of regional or cultural dialects. The progressive verb tense is used to indicate an ongoing physical or mental action or state of being. The present progressive connects am, are, or is to a present participle (a verb with an “__ing” ending). The forms of the “to be” verb are is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been. Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lessons and study the examples.

Don’t substitute be for is to create an ongoing action in Standard English. Example: He be so funny. Instead, use the present progressive verb tense to connect am, are, or is to a present participle (a verb with an “__ing” ending). Revisions: He is so funny; He is being so funny.

Also, use the proper form of the “to be” verb to match its subject. Example: She were late. Revision: She was late.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: They be given plenty of money. They is lying if they say they don’t have enough.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: They are given plenty of money. They are lying if they say they don’t have enough.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a non-standard English substitution. Then write a second sentence correcting that non-standard English.

Check out the Pennington Publishing Blog for a full-year of grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons and our YouTube Pennington Publishing Channel for video versions of the same lessons.

This mechanics writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Hyphens

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Hyphens: Mechanics Lesson 54

How to Teach Hyphens                                                        Common Core

Hyphens are short dashes used to combine words. When the hyphen combines words and becomes part of common usage, the editors of our dictionaries decide to drop the hyphen and the two words become a compound noun. The only way to know whether the words are hyphenated or combined into a single compound word is to look up the word(s) in a print or online dictionary.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to use hyphens. A hyphen is a short dash (-) used to combine words. Hyphens join base words to form compound words. Hyphens are also used for numbers and spelled-out fractions. Additionally, hyphens join compound adjectives. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Use hyphens for compound adverbs that don’t end in “_ly,” when used before nouns. A compound adverb has two connected adverbs. Example: The much-requested song

When the compound adverb is after the noun, don’t hyphenate. Example: Her wishes were always well known.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: I woke up this morning at 7:30 AM. because I fell asleep last night at 10:00 p.m.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: I woke up this morning at 7:30 a.m. because I fell asleep last night at 10:00 p.m.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a hyphen.

Check out the Pennington Publishing Blog for a full-year of grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons and our YouTube Pennington Publishing Channel for video versions of the same lessons.

This mechanics writing opener is part of a comprehensive lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Teaching the Language Strand includes grade-level interactive grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons with simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments woven into each lesson. Each full-year curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets‒all with a comprehensive assessment plan. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets, each with a formative assessment. Previews and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available at www.penningtonpublishing.com.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,