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How to Teach Capitalization of Languages, Dialects, and People Groups

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Capitalization of Languages, Dialects, and People Groups: Mechanics Lesson 47

How to Teach Capitalization of Languages, Dialects, and People Groups                                                      Common Core

Capitalization rules for nouns can get tricky. Any proper noun name needs to be capitalized, including languages, dialects, and groups of people.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on capitalizing languages, dialects, and people groups. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples. 

Capitalize the names of languages, dialects, and people groups. Dialect refers to a variety of a language that is different in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary than other varieties of that language. Examples: Spanish, Creole, Roma

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: Both Canadians spoke Swahili fluently to the Africans.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: I woke up this morning at 7:30 a.m. because I fell asleep last night at 10:00 p.m.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using the name of a language and people group.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Plural Subject-Verb Agreement

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Plural Subject-Verb Agreement: Grammar and Usage Lesson 46

How to Teach Plural Subject-Verb Agreement                                                       Common Core

We all know that verbs have to match their subjects. One way that they have to match is in number. Singular has to match singular and plural must match plural. What gets confusing is when other words seem to be subjects, but are not. Knowing how to identify sentence subjects is essential.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on plural subject-verb agreement. A plural subject agrees with (matches) a plural verb and involves more than one person, place, or thing. In present tense the plural nouns do not end in s. For example, we say “Birds chirp,” not “Birds chirps.” Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

Following are the key rules of plural subject-verb agreement:

  • Some words seem to be singular, but are actually plural because they each have two parts: scissors, tweezers, pants, and shears. Example: Those scissors are sharp.
  • Sports teams not ending in s are plural and require plural verbs. Example: The Orlando Magic have been looking for a point guard.
  • A compound subject joined by and is plural and takes a plural verb. Example: Bob and Pam are friends.
  • These indefinite pronouns take plural verbs: both, few, many, others, and several. Example: Both seem wonderful.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: We have plenty of supplies for the project. Scissors are required to cut out the sports pictures from magazines. The Miami Heat is the students’ favorite team. There is plenty of their pictures. Most of the students finish quickly, but a few needs more time. Bob and Joe always ask for more time.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: We have plenty of supplies for the project. Scissors are required to cut out the sports pictures from magazines. The Miami Heat is the students’ favorite team. There are plenty of their pictures. Most of the students finish quickly, but a few need more time. Bob and Joe always ask for more time.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write two of your own sentences: the first with a compound subject and the second with an indefinite plural pronoun subject.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Capitalization of Organizations and Businesses

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Plural Subject-Verb Agreement: Mechanics Lesson 46

How to Teach Capitalization of Organizations and Businesses                                                      Common Core

Even organizations and businesses, if they are named, are considered to be proper nouns.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on capitalizing organizations and businesses. Display PowerPoint Instructional Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Capitalize the names of organizations and businesses. Don’t capitalize articles, conjunctions, and prepositions in the middle of the named organization or business. Examples: Helping with Hands Association, Durability for Life, Inc.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: The Girl Scouts of America is over 100-years-old. The united way of America and Pizza to Go® help fund that organization.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: The Girl Scouts of America is over 100-years-old. The United Way of America and Pizza to Go® help fund that organization.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using the name of an organization including a preposition.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Singular Subject-Verb Agreement

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Singular Subject-Verb Agreement: Grammar and Usage Lesson 45

How to Teach Singular Subject-Verb Agreement                                                       Common Core

Singular subject-verb agreement probably presents more challenges for the writer than plural subject-verb agreement because of collective nouns and indefinite singular pronouns.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on singular subject-verb agreement. Remember that a singular subject noun usually adds an ending s to agree with (match) a singular verb. Collective nouns which refer to a group, such as herd, and indefinite pronouns which end in “_body’ or “_one,” such as anybody or everyone also match singular verbs. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

Some singular subject subject-verb agreements are tricky:

  • Subject case pronouns must match these helping verbs: I matches am, was, have, and had; He, she, it, and you match is, was, has, and had. Examples: I am, she is
  • When two or more nouns or pronouns are joined by or or nor, use the verb that agrees with (matches) the noun or pronoun closest to the verb. Examples: Joe or Pam eats first; Joe or the children eat first before I do.
  • In clauses beginning with there is (are), the subject follows and the is (are) must agree (match) with that subject. Examples: There is a dog; There are dogs.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: Peter or Mick doesn’t seem ready. Their success depend on this. There is little time.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: Peter or Mick don’t seem ready. Their success depends on this. There is little time.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write two of your own sentences: the first one with two or more noun or pronoun subjects joined by or or nor and the second one beginning with “There is.”

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Capitalization of Special Events and Historical Periods

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Capitalization of Special Events and Historical Periods: Mechanics Lesson 45

How to Teach Capitalization of Special Events and Historical Periods                                                      Common Core

Capitalization rules are loosely applied in some circumstances. This is particularly true with special events. What exactly is a special event, as opposed to a non-special event? This is also true with historical periods. Most of us would agree that The Age of Reason seems like a well-defined historical period. But what about the Obama years?

Today’s mechanics lesson is on capitalizing special events and historical periods. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Capitalize the names of special events and historical periods. Don’t capitalize articles, conjunctions, and prepositions in the middle of a special event or historical period. Examples: The Boston Marathon, Middle Ages

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: The Bastille marathon celebrates The French revolution and The Age of Reason.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: The Bastille Marathon celebrates The French Revolution and The Age of Reason.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using the name of an historical period.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Verb Phrases

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Verb Phrases: Grammar and Usage Lesson 44

How to Teach Verb Phrases                                                      Common Core

If we add other words onto the main verb, we form phrases. Phrases can add description, share a condition, or set the mood for verbs. They can also change the verb tense of the main verb.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on verb phrases. Remember that a verb can mentally or physically act or serve as a state of being. A phrase is a group of related words without a noun and connected verb. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

A verb phrase consists of the main verb with a linking verb, helping verb, adverb, and/or prepositional phrase. Example: She had been serving faithfully for three years.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: The teachers will really watching carefully to make absolutely sure that none of the students has any cheat notes.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers:

The teachers will really watch carefully to make absolutely sure that none of the students has any cheat notes.

or

The teachers will really be watching carefully to make absolutely sure that none of the students has any cheat notes.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using two different types of verb phrases.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Capitalization of Holidays and Dates

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Capitalization of Holidays and Dates: Mechanics Lesson 44

How to Teach Capitalization of Holidays and Dates                                                   Common Core

Holidays certainly are special things. And because they are special, they are named. And because they are named, they are proper nouns. And because they are proper nouns, they must be capitalized. The same is true for special dates. 

Today’s mechanics lesson is on capitalizing holidays and dates. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Capitalize the names of holidays and dates. Don’t capitalize articles, conjunctions, and prepositions in the middle of a holiday. Examples: New Year’s Day, The Fourth of July

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: When memorial day is celebrated on March 29, 2017, I will just be graduating from high school.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers:

When Memorial Day is celebrated on March 29, 2017, I will just be graduating from high school.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using the name of a holiday.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Misplaced Modifiers

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Misplaced Modifiers: Grammar and Usage Lesson 42

How to Teach Misplaced Modifiers                                                     Common Core

Sometimes we just have to use “big words” to communicate exactly what we want to say. The grammatical term, modify, is one of those “big words” that we need to learn to be able to talk about language. Modify means a variety of things, including to describe, to talk about, to identify, to limit, to change, to add, and to restrict.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on misplaced modifiers. Remember that an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun and answers Which one? How many? or What kind? An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb and answers What degree? How? Where? or When? Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

A misplaced modifier modifies something that the writer does not intend to modify because of its placement in the sentence. Place modifiers close to the words that they modify. Examples:  I drank only water; I only drank water. In these sentences only is the modifier. These sentences have two different meanings. The first means that I drank nothing but water. The second means that all I did with the water was to drink it.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: I dusted always on Tuesdays. No one else did that chore.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: I always dusted on Tuesdays. No one else did that chore.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write two of your own sentences: the first with a misplaced adjective modifier and the second with that adjective modifier placed properly within the sentence.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Capitalization of Proper Noun Things and Products

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Capitalization of Proper Noun Things and Products: Mechanics Lesson 43

How to Teach Capitalization of Proper Noun Things and Products                                                    Common Core

Usually we like to avoid general words like thing in our written and spoken communication. But what about the definition of a proper noun as a named person, place, or thing? This catch-all term covers everything for a proper noun that a person or place does not. So, English-language arts teachers will have to admit that the word thing can sometimes be useful.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on capitalizing proper noun things and products.  Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Capitalize named things and products. Don’t capitalize words representing these parts of speech when found in the middle of named things and products:

  • Articles (a, an, the) Example: Two a Day Vitamins
  • Conjunctions Example: World History and Geography
  • Prepositions Example: Race for Life

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: Two Kites In The Sky has got to be the most popular play to hit town in recent years.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: Two Kites in the Sky has got to be the most popular play to hit town in recent years.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence with a named product or products including a conjunction.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing

How to Teach Dangling Modifiers

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Dangling Modifiers: Grammar and Usage Lesson 43

How to Teach Dangling Modifiers                                                       Common Core

Dangling modifiers provide quite a bit of humor for your English-language arts teachers. They are also favorite sources of humor for many cartoonists. Cartoonists find much of their humor in word play. The way they use language makes a joke or punchline funny or not. To understand the humor in a dangling modifier, you have to be able to recognize and explain one when you see it. Now, not every dangling modifier is laugh-out-loud funny, but each of them creates misunderstanding for the reader.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on dangling modifiers. Remember that an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun and answers Which one? How many? or What kind? An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb and answers What degree? How? Where? or When? A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that serves as an adjective or adverb to describe, limit, or add to another word, phrase, or clause. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

A dangling modifier is an adjective or adverb that does not have a clear connection to the word, phrase, or clause to which it refers. A dangling modifier usually takes the form of a present participle (“__ing”), a past participle (“__d,” “__t,” “__ed,” “__ en”), or an infinitive (to + the base form of a verb). To eliminate the dangling modifier, place the doer of the sentence as the subject of the independent clause or combine the phrase and independent clause. Example: Fired from your job, your car became your home. (Your car was not fired; you were.)

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: Having finished her homework, she turned on the television.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers:

Having finished her homework, she turned on the television.

or

She turned on the television show after finishing her homework.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write two of your own sentences: the first with a dangling modifier and the second with that modifier placed properly within the sentence.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Capitalization of Proper Noun Names and Characters

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Capitalization of Proper Noun Names and Characters: Mechanics Lesson 42

How to Teach Capitalization of Proper Noun Names and Characters                                                      Common Core

A proper noun can be simple, such as Donny, or complete, such as Mr. Donny Duck III. Now technically speaking, the words added to the simple proper noun are called proper adjectives, but we’re more interested in how to properly capitalize them in this lesson.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on capitalizing proper noun names and charactersDisplay Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Capitalize people’s and characters’ names. Also capitalize named places and things. Don’t capitalize articles, conjunctions, and prepositions in the middle of the name, named place, or named thing. Don’t capitalize words representing these parts of speech when found in the middle of people’s or character names.

  • Articles (a, an, the) Example: Courage the Cowardly Dog
  • Conjunctions Example: Punch and Judy
  • Prepositions Example: St. Francis of Assisi

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: My dad was a Native-american and his favorite superhero was Batman.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: My dad was a Native-American and his favorite superhero was Batman.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a character’s name including an article.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Long Superlative Modifiers

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Long Superlative Modifiers: Grammar and Usage Lesson 41

How to Teach Long Superlative Modifiers                                                       Common Core

Remember that the Latin prefix super means “above” or “beyond.” Superlative means the best or most. Long superlative modifiers are formed differently than short superlative modifiers.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on long superlative modifiers. Remember that a modifier is an adjective or adverb that limits the meaning of a word or words. Also remember that a comparative modifier compares two things and a superlative modifier compares three or more things. Use the suffix “_est” for a one-syllable modifier to compare three or more things. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Use “_est,” most, or least for a two-syllable or longer superlative modifier to compare three or more things. The superlative modifier indicates which is the most or least. When to use “_est” and when to use most or least is simply a matter of usage.  Examples: mightiest, most interesting

Always use most or least for adverbs ending in “__ly.” Example: She waited least patiently.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and mechanics lesson.

Practice: Compared to the other two artists, Linda was the most happy, but she also had the least financial sense. Of the three artist friends, Linda did work the most conscientiously.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: Compared to the other two artists, Linda was the happiest, but she also had the least financial sense. Of the three artist friends, Linda did work the most conscientiously.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentences using an “_est” and a most or least superlative modifier.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Punctuation of Short Story and Document Titles

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Punctuation of Short Story and Document Titles: Mechanics Lesson 41

How to Teach Punctuation of Short Story and Document Titles                                                    Common Core

Punctuation of short stories and document titles includes proper capitalization and quotation marks.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to punctuate short story and document titlesDisplay Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Place quotation marks before and after the titles of short stories and documents. Short stories and documents are parts of whole things, small things, or things that can’t be picked up from a table. A document is a written record that provides official information or evidence.

Examples: “The Most Dangerous Game” “Your Rights as a Consumer”

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: Her short story was titled “Into My Arms.” The main character finds the lost document titled “Birth Certificate of Tim Martin.”

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: Her short story was titled “Into My Arms.” The main character finds the lost document titled “Birth Certificate of Tim Martin.”

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using the title of a short story and a document title.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Short Superlative Modifiers

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Short Superlative Modifiers: Grammar and Usage Lesson 40

How to Teach Short Superlative Modifiers                                                   Common Core

When we say “super,” we usually mean “great.” For example, “How was the food?” “Super.” Originally, the Latin prefix super meant “above” or “beyond.” Superlative means the best or most. Short superlative modifiers are formed differently than long superlative modifiers.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on short superlative modifiers. Remember that a modifier is an adjective or adverb that limits the meaning of a word or words. A comparative modifier compares two things, using the suffix “_er” for one-syllable modifier, more (less) or “_er” for a two-syllable modifier, and more or less for three-syllable (or longer) adjective modifiers and all adverbs ending in “__ly.” Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

Use the suffix “_est” for a one-syllable superlative modifier to compare three or more things. The superlative modifier indicates which is the most or least. Example: greatest

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: Of the three swimmers, Jonna was most best, Rose was second best, while Yolanda had the least amount of skill.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: Of the three swimmers, Jonna was best, Rose was second best, while Yolanda had the least amount of skill.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a one-syllable superlative modifier to compare three or more things.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Punctuation of Article Titles

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Punctuation of Article Titles: Mechanics Lesson 40

How to Teach Punctuation of Article Titles                                                       Common Core

Articles appear in many forms of media. Blogs, magazines (both print and online), encyclopedias, newspapers, and journals all have articles.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to punctuate article titles. Remember that we underline or italicize the titles of newspapers, magazines, and website titles. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Place quotation marks before and after the titles of articles. Articles are parts of whole things, small things, or things that can’t be picked up from a table. An article is a short written work such as a newspaper article, magazine article, or blog article that is part of the larger publication. Example: “The President’s Greatest Challenge”

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: She went to the store to buy the Popstar! magazine, so she could read the article titled “Don’t Marry in Hollywood.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: She went to the store to buy the Popstar! magazine, so she could read the article titled “Don’t Marry in Hollywood.”

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using the title of a newspaper and a newspaper article.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Long Comparative Modifiers

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Long Comparative Modifiers: Grammar and Usage Lesson 39

How to Teach Long Comparative Modifiers                                                       Common Core

Since comparative modifier involves just two comparisons, we never use most or least as part of the modifier. With long comparative modifiers many writers make this mistake and write something like “Between the red and green salsas the red is the most delicious.” So let’s avoid this common error and learn why we would need to write “Between the red and green salsas the red is the more delicious.”

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on long comparative modifiers. Remember a modifier is an adjective or adverb that limits the meaning of a word or words. Use the suffix “_er” for a one-syllable modifier to compare two things. Use “_er” or more (less) for a two-syllable modifier to compare two things. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

A long comparative modifier uses more or less for three-syllable (or longer) adjective modifiers and for all adverbs ending in “__ly” to compare two things. Example: more humorous, less surprisingly

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: Maggie was more attractiver than Frances, but Maggie was less interesting.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: Maggie was more attractive than Frances, but Maggie was less interesting.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a long comparative modifier.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Punctuation of Book Chapter Titles

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Punctuation of Book Chapter Titles: Mechanics Lesson 39

How to Teach Punctuation of Book Chapter Titles                                                        Common Core

Authors use book chapter titles for a variety of purposes. In a textbook the chapter title usually deals with the main topic of that chapter. In a story the book chapter title may be descriptive about what will take place in that chapter, such as with J. K. Rowling’s “The Goblin’s Revenge” from Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows or something that makes you want to keep reading, such as with “A Surprising Ghost” in Lynne Reid Banks’ The Key to the Indian.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to punctuate book chapter titles. Remember that we underline or italicize the titles of books. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Place quotation marks before and after the titles of book chapters. Book chapter titles are parts of whole things, small things, or things that can’t be picked up from a table. Example: “Last Time”

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: I just read the last chapter in the book titled “A Fitting End.” The first chapter was titled A Fitting Beginning.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: I just read the last chapter in the book titled “A Fitting End.” The first chapter was titled “A Fitting Beginning.”

Now let’s apply what we’ve learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a book title and a book chapter title.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Short Comparative Modifiers

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Short Comparative Modifiers: Grammar and Usage Lesson 38

How to Teach Short Comparative Modifiers                                                      Common Core

A comparison means to find the similarities or differences between two or more things. Sometimes we use the word contrast to find just the differences, so teachers may say “Compare and contrast these two plots,” but the word compare can mean what’s the same and what’s different, so “Compare these two plots” really means to do the same task. When we use the term comparative modifier, we mean comparing only two nouns or verbs. We use superlative modifier when comparing three or more nouns or verbs.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on short comparative modifiers. Remember that an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun and answers Which one? How many? or What kind? An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb and answers What degree? How? Where? or When? Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

A modifier is an adjective or adverb that limits the meaning of a word or words. Use the suffix “_er” for a one-syllable modifier to compare two things. Example: fewer than five

Use “_er” or more (less) for a two-syllable modifier to compare two things. Example: prettier, more often

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: Mike appears more smart than Ken, but Mike is really just more careful with his work.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: Mike appears smarter than Ken, but Mike is really just more careful with his work.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using both an “_er” and a more (less) comparative adjective.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Punctuation of Song and Poem Titles

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Punctuation of Song and Poem Titles: Mechanics Lesson 38

How to Teach Punctuation of Song and Poem Titles                                                   Common Core

Punctuating song and poem titles can be a bit confusing. Both songs and poems don’t always fit into our general rules that things which are “short, part of a whole, or can’t be picked up a table” are enclosed within quotation marks and things which are “long, whole things, or can be picked up from a table” are italicized or underlined. After all, some songs and poems can be very long. Some songs and poems are not parts of a whole. You can certainly buy just one song from iTunes. Finally, how do you pick up a download from a table? It’s important to remember that rules all have exceptions.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to punctuate song and poem titles. Remember that any title of a creative work must be punctuated with either italics (underlining if written) or quotationsDisplay Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Place quotation marks before and after the titles of songs and poems. Songs and poems are parts of whole things, small things, or things that can’t be picked up from a table. Examples: “Jingle Bells” “This Little Piggy”

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: The lyrics to “The Star-Spangled Banner” were taken from Francis Scott Key’s poem titled Defence of Fort McHenry.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: The lyrics to “The Star-Spangled Banner” were taken from Francis Scott Key’s poem titled “Defence of Fort McHenry.” Note that defence is the British spelling.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using the title of a song.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Predicate Adjectives

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Predicate Adjectives: Grammar and Usage Lesson 37

How to Teach Predicate Adjectives                                                 Common Core

Each part of speech, such as adjectives, takes plenty of different forms in our speaking and writing sentence structure. Because adjectives modify nouns and pronouns, this means that they also modify the way nouns and pronouns are used in sentences, such as subjects which act and objects which receive the action.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on predicate adjectives and adjectival phrases. Remember that an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun and answers Which one? How many? or What kind? A linking verb describes or renames the subject. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

An adjective that follows a linking verb to describe a preceding noun or pronoun is called a predicate adjective. Example: Mark is nice and he looks good. Because the predicate adjective serves as an object, it often has modifiers.Example: Joe was very cool.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: Their year-end final exams were difficulter, but most were manageable.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: Their year-end final exams were difficulter, but most were manageable.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using predicate adjective as part of an adjectival phrase.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Punctuation of Plays and Work of Art Titles

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Punctuation of Plays and Work of Art Titles: Mechanics Lesson 37

How to Teach Punctuation of Plays and Work of Art Titles                                                    Common Core

Plays would include dramas, comedies, and musicals. Works of art would include most every other creative visual or auditory form of expression.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to punctuate plays and work of art titles. Works of art include paintings, sculptures, photographs, and more. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Underline or italicize the titles of plays, musicals, and works of art. Plays and works of art are whole things, big things, or things that can be picked up from a table. Examples: Hamlet, Carousel, Pieta

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: I read about that book, titled The Lincoln Conspiracy. The article appeared in both Seventeen and “The Los Angeles Times.”

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: I read about that book, titled The Lincoln Conspiracy. The article appeared in both Seventeen and The Los Angeles Times.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using the title of a play or painting.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Adjectival Phrases

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Adjectival Phrases: Grammar and Usage Lesson 36

How to Teach Adjectival Phrases                                                        Common Core

Adjectival Phrases are probably more often called adjective phrases; however, to be technical we are supposed to use an adjective to modify a noun, such as phrases, if one exists, and not two nouns. Adjectival is the adjective form of the noun, adjective, so that’s why we use it. Of course it’s much more important to know what an adjectival phrase is and how to identify it when we see it and write it when we want to.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on adjectival phrases. Remember that an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun and answers Which one? How many? or What kind? A phrase is a group of related words without a connected noun and verb. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

An adjectival phrase has more than one adjective and modifies a noun or pronoun. The phrase answers Which one? How many? or What kind? of the noun or pronoun. Examples: The handsome and entertaining speaker received thunderous applause from an appreciative, welcoming, and receptive audience.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: A young terrific man  left me in the capable, kind, and caring hands of my doctor.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: A terrific young man  left me in the capable, kind, and caring hands of my doctor.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using an adjectival phrase.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Punctuation of Book, Website, Newspaper, and Magazine Titles

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Punctuation of Book, Website, Newspaper, and Magazine Titles: Mechanics Lesson 36

How to Teach Punctuation of Book, Website, Newspaper, and Magazine Titles                                                      Common Core

One confusing punctuation rule deals with the punctuation of titles of whole works. The issue is with pen or pencil and paper we punctuate differently than we do when word processing. We use underlining when we write these titles on paper, but we italicize (make slanted letters) when we use the computer.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on using Latin abbreviations for time. Remember that periods end declarative statements, such as “That is my pen” and imperative commands, such as “Give me my pen.”Periods are also used to abbreviate words and phrases. Let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Underline or italicize the titles of books, websites, newspapers, and magazines. Books, newspapers, websites, and magazines are whole things, big things, or things that can be picked up from a table. Examples: War and Peace, New York Times, YouTube, Tiger Beat  

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: Joe, Jones. Eat for Fun. Azusa: Lee Publishing, 2014. Print

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers:

Joe, Jones. Eat for Fun. Azusa: Lee Publishing, 2014. Print

or

Joe, Jones. Eat for Fun. Azusa: Lee Publishing, 2014. Print

Now let’s apply what we’ve learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a book and a magazine title.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Vague Pronoun References

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Vague Pronoun References: Grammar and Usage Lesson 35

How to Teach Vague Pronoun References                                                        Common Core

Different parts of sentences have to relate to each other to make sense. When it’s unclear how one part of the sentence relates to another, the reader has difficulty understanding what is being said.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on vague pronoun references. Remember that a pronoun takes the place of a noun and identifies its antecedent. An antecedent is the noun or pronoun that the pronoun refers to or re-names. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

Three vague pronoun references have pronouns which do not clearly identify their antecedents:

1. Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, these, or those) are used on their own. Revise by adding a noun following the pronoun. Example: That is beautiful. That painting is beautiful.

2. Plural antecedents match one pronoun. Revise by repeating the noun. Example: He did have pens but we didn’t need any right now. He did have pens but we didn’t need any right now.

3. The antecedent is an adjective. Revise by changing the pronoun reference from an adjective to a noun. Example: I called Jesse’s work Jesse at his work, but he never answered.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: Get some paper from your binder and write on it. I like Amy’s friend, but Amy doesn’t.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: Get some paper from your binder and write on the paper. I like Amy’s friend, but Amy doesn’t.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a pronoun antecedent which clearly and specifically matches its antecedent.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Punctuation of Movie and Television Show Titles

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Punctuation of Movie and Television Show Titles: Mechanics Lesson 35

How to Teach Punctuation of Movie and Television Show Titles                                                       Common Core

Both movie and television show titles are punctuated the same. 

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to punctuate movie and television show titles. Remember that we underline when writing, but italicize when word processing. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Underline or italicize the titles of movies and television shows. Movies and television shows are whole things, big things, or things that can be picked up from a table such as a DVD.The titles of television episodes are placed within quotation marks. Examples: Avatar, “The Nightmare” is the third episode of Lost in Time.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: The movie titled Back Once Again appeared as the television show titled “Back Home Again” in the 1970s.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: The movie titled Back Once Again appeared as the television show titled Back Home Again in the 1970s.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a movie title.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Pronoun Number and Person Shifts

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Pronoun Number and Person Shifts: Grammar and Usage Lesson 34

How to Teach Pronoun Number and Person Shifts                                                      Common Core

Writers often confuse their readers by changing the number of pronouns. In other words the writers confuse singular and plural forms. Additionally, writers frequently make the mistake of changing the person. In other words the writers change first person, second person, or third person pronouns within the same paragraphs.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on vague pronoun references. Remember that a pronoun takes the place of a noun and identifies its antecedent. An antecedent is the noun or pronoun that the pronoun refers to or re-names. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

A personal pronoun must match singular pronouns to singular nouns or pronouns and plural pronouns to plural nouns or pronouns. Example: Julie has their her own style.

Often number errors are made with gender-specific pronouns. Revise by making the antecedent nouns plural. Example: The student students ate their lunch lunches.Or revise the sentence without the pronouns. Example: The student ate their lunch.

A personal pronoun must also be in the same person as its antecedent. Pronouns are in the first, second, or third person. Revise pronoun person problems by matching the pronoun person to its antecedent. Example: Julie has your her own style.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: Tommy and Ashley like his or her school a lot. Both say you have to try their best.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers:

Tommy and Ashley their school a lot. Both say you have to try your best.

or

Tommy and Ashley their school a lot. Both say theyhave to try theirbest.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a pronoun antecedent which correctly matches the number of its antecedent.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Punctuation of Direct Quotations

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Punctuation of Direct Quotations: Mechanics Lesson 34

How to Teach Punctuation of Direct Quotations                                                       Common Core

Punctuating direct quotations is not that difficult, until you have to use a quotation or quoted title within a quotation. Punctuation can also get tricky when you don’t want to use all of the quote. Using citations properly can also be a bit of a challenge, but you have to tell the writer where you got the words and/or ideas you are borrowing.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to punctuate quoted references within direct quotations. Remember that a direct quotation includes the spoken or written words. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

When quotations or quoted titles are placed within quoted speech, use single quotation marks (‘__’) at the beginning and end of the inside quotations. Use double quotation marks (“__”) at the beginning and end of the entire quotation. Example: Beth said, “Do you agree with Beth’s statement that ‘the case is closed?’”

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: “Just 22% of adults drink milk (Dent 8).” Another author believes it’s 28% (Lind 42).

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: “Just 22% of adults drink milk”(Dent 8).Another author believes it’s 28% (Lind 42).

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence with a make-believe quoted reference within a direct quotation.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Pronoun Antecedents

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
How to Teach Pronoun Antecedents: Grammar and Usage Lesson 33

How to Teach Pronoun Antecedents                                                        Common Core

One of the problems that a developing writer faces when learning to write longer and more complicated sentences is the misuse of pronoun antecedents. Pronouns can be wonderful parts of speech in the hands of a skillful writer. Pronouns can produce variety and reduce repetitiveness, but they shouldn’t be used when they confuse the reader. Learning how to avoid the common pronoun antecedent problems is helpful. Learning how to write clear and specific pronoun antecedent relationships is essential.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on pronoun antecedents. Remember that a pronoun takes the place of a noun and identifies its antecedent. An antecedent is the noun or pronoun that the pronoun refers to or re-names. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

A pronoun must clearly and specifically refer to just one noun or pronoun (the antecedent). Generally, the pronoun refers to the noun or pronoun immediately before the pronoun.

To avoid pronoun antecedent problems:

1. Keep pronouns close to their references or use synonyms.

2. Don’t have a pronoun refer to the object of a prepositional phrase. Example: The box of pencils was found in their place. Revision: The box of pencils was found in its place.

3. Don’t have a pronoun refer to a possessive antecedent. Example: Are theirs the best cookies? They certainly are. Revision: Are their cookies the best? They certainly are.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: The dog’s dry food was in the bag. It was expensive. The food was also smelly.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: The dog’s dry food was in the bag. The foodwas expensive. The food was also smelly.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a clear and specific pronoun antecedent.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Punctuation of Indirect Quotations

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 2
How to Teach Punctuation of Indirect Quotations: Mechanics Lesson 33

How to Teach Punctuation of Indirect Quotations                                                       Common Core

When students begin writing reports of information or summaries in elementary school, the often used teacher direction is “Put it in your own words.” Now paraphrasing and summarizing are useful skills; however, putting someone else’s idea into your own words does not make it your own idea. The writer must faithfully represent what the idea actually is and then credit the originator of the idea with a proper citation.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to punctuate indirect quotations. Remember that a direct quotation includes the spoken or written words; an indirect quotation paraphrases the original words. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

An indirect quotation reports someone else’s words without quoting each word. Indirect quotations still require proper citations, but not quotation marks. A citation is the name of the source (the author’s last name or title, if no author is listed) and the page number of the print material where the author’s words are found. Example: Cheetahs are the fastest animals (Lee 5).

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: Tommy asked, “May I have some?” “Did he have to ask that question?” “Wow!”

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: Tommy asked, “May I have some?” “Did he have to ask that question”?“Wow!”

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using an indirect quotation.

Check out and bookmark the 112 Writing Openers and get the instructional scope and links to all 56 grammar and usage lessons and all 56 mechanics lessons.  Plus, subscribe to my YouTube Channel and get the same lessons in video format.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,

How to Teach Reciprocal Pronouns

Teaching the Language Strand ©2014 Pennington Publishing
Common Core Language Standard 1
Latin Abbreviations for Time: Grammar and Usage Lesson 32

How to Teach Reciprocal Pronouns                                                     Common Core

The good thing about reciprocal pronouns is that we only have two of them: each other and one another. The usage rule works most of the time, but is often ignored by many professional writers. Your English-language arts teacher will probably suggest that you should stick to the rules, until you are making money as a professional writer and choose to break those rules.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on reciprocal pronouns. Remember that a pronoun takes the place of a noun and may be in the subject, object, or possessive case. Display Instructional PowerPoint Slides

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

The two reciprocal pronouns, each other and one another, are used to describe the same action shared by two or more things or people. Usually, each other is used to refer to two people; one another is used to refer to more than two people. Examples: Jenna, Rosie, and Tanya love another other. Leo and Viktor irritate each other.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: The teammates gave one another praise for their victory. They had to depend upon each other to pull out the win.

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: The teammates gave one another praise for their victory. They had to depend upon one another to pull out the win.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a reciprocal pronoun.

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This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Teaching the Language Strand (of the Common Core State Standards) Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete language conventions lessons feature the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons plus simple sentence diagrams, error analysis, mentor texts, writing applications, and formative assessments. Additionally, the full-year Teaching the Language Strand curriculum provides a complete spelling patterns program, language application openers, and vocabulary worksheets. Bi-weekly unit tests measure definition, identification, and writing application. Each program includes a comprehensive teacher’s guide with scripted instructions and accompanying student workbooks with the complete lesson text, practice, and assessments. Teaching the Language Strand also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with remedial grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling pattern worksheets–all with quick formative assessments. In short, every resource you need to teach all of the grade-level Common Core Language Strand Standards and individualize instruction is provided in the Teaching the Language Strand programsComplete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , ,